ASTM D999 – 08
Standard Test Methods for Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers
ASTM D999 – 08 testing covers vibration tests of filled shipping containers. Such tests may be used to assess the performance of a container, with its interior packing and means of closure, both in terms of its strength and of the protection it provides its contents when it is subjected to vibration such as it experiences in transportation. These procedures of the ASTM D999 – 08 test are suitable for testing containers of any form, material, kind, design of interior packing, means of closure, and any size and weight.
ASTM D999 – 08 labs are not intended to determine the response of products to vibration for product design purposes, nor are they intended for tests of products in their operational configuration as other more suitable procedures are available for these purposes.
The following methods appear in ASTM D999 – 08 testing:
Method A1—Repetitive Shock Test (Vertical Motion).
Method A2—Repetitive Shock Test (Rotary Motion).
Method B—Single Container Resonance Test.
Method C—Palletized Load, Unitized Load, or Vertical Stack Resonance Test.
For testing of intermediate bulk containers (IBCs) containing liquid hazardous materials, refer to Test Method D7387.
These test methods fulfill the requirements of International Organization for Standardization standards ISO 8318 and ISO 2247. The ISO standards may not meet the requirements for these methods.
ASTM D999 – 08 labs do not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Shipping containers are exposed to complex dynamic stresses when subjected to vibration present in all transportation vehicles. Approximating the actual damage, or lack of damage, experienced in shipping may require subjecting the container(s) and contents to vibration inputs. Resonant responses during shipment can be severe and may lead to package or product failure. Identification of critical frequencies, and the nature of package stresses can aid in minimizing the effect of these occurrences.
Vibration tests should be based on representative field data. When possible, the confidence level may be improved by comparing laboratory test results with actual field shipment data. It is highly recommended that one understand the most common failures to one’s products and packaging in distribution, and then attempt to replicate those failures in the laboratory. Once such replication is established, then that test can become the minimum necessary test for future packaged products to pass.
Exposure to vibration can affect the shipping container, its interior packaging, means of closure, and contents. The ASTM D999 – 08 tests allow analysis of the interaction of these components. Design modification to one or more of these components may be utilized to achieve optimum performance in the shipping environment.
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