Ingress Protection: Immersion Water Tests (IPX7 and IPX8)
Ingress protection testing tests the degree of protection an enclosure provides against intrusions. One such set of ingress protection tests involves immersing the equipment under test (EUT), in water. These tests are included in the Ingress Protection Code or IP Code ratings as IPX7 and IPX8.
The first digit, represented by the “X”, ranges from 0 to 6 and specifies the protection from solid particles. The solid particles can include probes, fingers and dust testing. The second digit in the ingress protection code rating, in the case of the immersion ingress protection testing, would always be a 7 or an 8.
Below is a brief description of the two types of immersion tests included in ingress protection testing per the IEC 60529 test standard.
- IP X7 immersion testing is defined as immersion in up to one meter of water.
- The IPX7 waterproofness test requirement is that the ingress of water is not considered to be in harmful quantities. This determination is made when the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time.
- The defined conditions could be water at a certain temperature. It could also be liquid of a certain salinity or the use of other chemicals.
- A product IPX7 rated is able to meet the requirements of this water ingress test.
- IP X8 immersion testing is defined as immersion in over one meter of water.
- The IPX8 waterproofness test requirements are typically set by the manufacturer but normally mean:
- The equipment is suitable for continuous immersion in water under specific conditions. These specific conditions should be specified by the manufacturer.
- Typically, the equipment is hermetically sealed. However, with certain types of equipment, it can mean that water can enter. If there is some liquid intrusion, it should only occur in a manner such that it produces no harmful effects.
- Similar to IPX7 ingress testing, the liquid can contain chemicals. It can also be conditioned to various temperatures.
- The test duration is specified by the manufacturer.
- A product IPX8 rated is able to meet the requirements of this liquid enclosure test.
IPX7 and IPX8 Immersion Testing Laboratory Testing Procedures
IPX7 and IPX8 are specific levels of Ingress Protection (IP) ratings that define the water resistance of electronic devices. IPX7 denotes protection against immersion in water up to 1 meter for 30 minutes, while IPX8 indicates protection against continuous immersion beyond 1 meter depth. These tests are commonly conducted on various devices, including smartphones, smartwatches, and other electronic gadgets.
IPX7 Immersion Testing Procedure:
- Test Setup: Prepare the device to be tested, ensuring it is powered off and all ports and openings are securely closed with their respective covers, gaskets, or seals.
- Water Tank: Fill a water tank or container with water, making sure it is large enough to fully immerse the device without touching the bottom of the tank.
- Immersion: Gently place the device into the water, making sure it remains submerged at a depth of 1 meter (3.3 feet) for 30 minutes. Some test standards may require the device to be oriented in various positions during the test (e.g., different angles).
- Remove and Inspection: After 30 minutes, remove the device from the water and thoroughly inspect it for any signs of water ingress. Examine the internal components and external surfaces for water damage or moisture.
IPX8 Immersion Testing Procedure:
- Test Setup: Similar to IPX7 testing, prepare the device to be tested, ensuring all ports and openings are adequately sealed. Additionally, you will need a larger water tank or container to accommodate immersion beyond 1 meter depth.
- Water Tank: Fill the larger tank or container with water, deep enough to fully immerse the device well beyond 1 meter depth, as specified by the IPX8 rating standard.
- Immersion: Carefully submerge the device in the water, ensuring it remains fully immersed for the duration specified in the test standard. The duration may vary depending on the specific IPX8 rating (e.g., continuous immersion for 1 hour or more).
- Remove and Inspection: After the designated immersion period, remove the device from the water and conduct a thorough inspection for any signs of water ingress. Check both internal components and external surfaces for water damage or moisture.
Why is Immersion Compliance Testing Important?
Immersion testing has always been important, but it has become a key marketing point for many manufacturers over the last couple of years. Many cell phone manufacturers now publicize and promote their immersion test IP Code rating.
For example, IP Code IPX7 and IPX8 testing give a competitive advantage to be able to say that a phone is not damaged if it is submerged in water. The term water resistant is frequently used. This marketing push has forced engineers to get creative with the design of enclosures.
Despite the emphasis on consumer products, a lot of other products must be tested in an immersion test lab. Military products must be ruggedized to meet a variety of different challenging environments. Immersion and enclosure testing is essential for product certification.
Many industrial products must meet ingress protection test standards as well. Mining equipment and transportation equipment often encounter very wet conditions. Products going on ships are obvious candidates to need immersion test lab visits. Manufacturers need ip code testing to learn the levels of water resistance.
Lastly, the advent of waterproof fabrics has influenced the emphasis on IP ratings. The ingress protection testing of fabrics is now a substantial market. A product completing a one meter immersion test can be a significant competitive advantage.
For a complete list of all of the possible IPX7 and IPX8 IP code combinations, please see the chart at the bottom of this page. There is a list of every code for the testing of solid foreign objects and water immersion testing.
Why is Keystone Compliance the Best Immersion Test Lab?
As a leader in ingress protection testing, Keystone Compliance is the chosen immersion testing lab of many manufacturers. We have substantial capabilities with ingress protection and all other mechanical / environmental testing.
Our liquid testing scope is highlighted by our enclosure immersion testing. Our scope also includes dripping water test, spraying water test, water jets test and high temperature and high pressure water test. In addition to water ingress protection testing, we also offer testing of solid items including dust ingress testing as well.
We also offer testing to many commercial and military ingress protection standards. These include MIL-STD 750 Method 1011.1, MIL-STD 883 1002, and RTCA DO-160 Section 10.0 Waterproofness Testing. Some of the more common commercial standards include NEMA 250 testing , IEC 60529 testing, ASTM D951 testing and ISO 20653 testing.
Contact us to request a quote and realize firsthand why so many companies trust Keystone Compliance as their immersion test lab.
|IP Rating||Degree of Protection Against Shttps://keystonecompliance.com/ip-code-request-for-quote-form/olid Foreign Objects||Degree of Protection Against Water|
|IP08||Not Protected||Immersion beyond 1 m|
|IP18||Solid object >50 mm||Immersion beyond 1 m|
|IP28||Solid object >12.5 mm||Immersion beyond 1 m|
|IP38||Solid object>2.5 mm||Immersion beyond 1 m|
|IP48||Solid object>1 mm||Immersion beyond 1 m|
|IP58||Dust protected||Immersion beyond 1 m|
|IP68||Dust tight||Immersion beyond 1 m|
|IP07||Not Protected||Immersion up to 1 m|
|IP17||Solid object >50 mm||Immersion up to 1 m|
|IP27||Solid object >12.5 mm||Immersion up to 1 m|
|IP37||Solid object>2.5 mm||Immersion up to 1 m|
|IP47||Solid object>1 mm||Immersion up to 1 m|
|IP57||Dust protected||Immersion up to 1 m|
|IP67||Dust tight||Immersion up to 1 m|