EN 60945 Maritime Navigation and Radiocommunication Equipment and Systems
The EN 60945 test standard addresses the safety of life at sea. This page addresses the EMC testing of the standard. EN-60945 provides general requirements for electronic navigation aids and shipborne radio equipment. There are three primary types of equipment covered by the EN 60945 tests.
First, is shipborne radio equipment forming part of the global safety and maritime distress and system. This requirement was enacted by the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). The second type of equipment is shipborne navigational equipment required by the SOLAS.
The third type of equipment only applies to EMC testing. This is all other bridge-mounted equipment. This is equipment in close proximity to receiving antennas, and equipment capable of interfering with safe navigation of the ship and with radio-communications.
What are the EN 60945 Test Methods for EMC Testing?
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Unwanted Electromagnetic Emission Testing
During the measurements for unwanted electromagnetic emission, the EUT should operate under normal test conditions. The setting of controls which may affect the level of conducted or radiated emission should be varied in order to ascertain the maximum emission level.
If the EUT has more than one energized state, for example operate, stand-by, etc., the state which produces the maximum emission level should be ascertained. Full measurements for that state shall be made. The antenna connection of the EUT, if any, should be terminated in a nonradiating artificial antenna.
Equipment including a transmitter operating within the measurement bands should be in the operational state but not the transmitting state for radiated emission tests. Particular interfaces of the EUT with the external electromagnetic environment are referred to as ports. The physical boundary of the EUT through which electromagnetic fields may radiate or impinge is the enclosure port.
Conducted Emissions Test
Conducted emissions testing applies to all equipment categories except portable. This EMC test measures any signals generated by equipment which appear on its power supply port and which can, therefore, be conducted into the ship’s power supply, and potentially disturb other equipment.
Radiated Emissions Test from Enclosure Port Test
Radiated emissions testing applies to all equipment categories except submerged. This EMC immunity test measures any signals radiated by an equipment (other than through an antenna) which can potentially disturb other equipment on the ship, such as radio receivers.
Immunity to Electromagnetic Environment
For these tests the EUT shall conform to its normal operational configuration, mounting and earthing arrangements, unless otherwise stated, and shall operate under normal test conditions. Particular interfaces of the EUT with the external electromagnetic environment are referred to as ports. The physical boundary of the EUT through which electromagnetic fields may radiate or impinge is the enclosure port.
Differential tests are those applied between electrical power, signal and control lines. Common mode tests are those applied between groups of lines and a common reference, normally earth.
Immunity to Conducted Low-Frequency Interference Test
The immunity to conducted low-frequency interference testing applies to all equipment categories except portable. This conducted immunity test simulates the effects of power supply harmonics on a.c. supplies, and alternator ripple on d.c. supplies. This test is not applicable for EUT intended for operation from battery power sources.
Immunity to Conducted Radio Frequency Interference Test
The immunity to conducted radio frequency interference testing applies to all equipment categories except portable. This conducted immunity EMC test simulates the effects of disturbances induced in power, signal and control lines from switching power supplies, engine ignition noise, echo sounders and ships’ radio transmitters at frequencies below 80 MHz.
Immunity to Radiated Radiofrequencies Test
Immunity to radiated radiofrequencies testing applies to all equipment categories except submerged. This radiated immunity test simulates the effects of radio transmitters at frequencies above 80 MHz, such as the ship’s VHF transmitter and hand-held portable radios, close to the equipment.
Immunity to Fast Transients on A.C. Power, Signal and Control Lines Test
The immunity to fast transients on a.c. power, signal and control lines applies to all equipment categories except portable. This radiated immunity EMC test simulates the fast, low-energy transients produced by equipment switching which causes arcing at contacts.
Immunity to Surges on A.C. Power Lines Test
The immunity to surges on a.c. power lines testing applies to all equipment categories except portable. This surge immunity test simulates the slow, high-energy surges produced by thyristor switching on a.c. power supplies.
Immunity to Power Supply Short-Term Variation Test
Immunity to power supply short-term variation testing applies to all equipment categories except portable. This power immunity test simulates power supply variations due to large changes in load. It is additional to the tests under permanent power supply variation in extreme test conditions. This test is not applicable to d.c. powered equipment.
Immunity to Power Supply Failure Test
The immunity to power supply failure testing applies to all equipment categories except portable. This EMC/EMI test simulates short breaks in the ship’s power supply due to power supply changeover and breaker drop-out. This test is not applicable to EUT intended for operation from battery power sources or fitted with or connected to back-up batteries. It covers the break allowed by the IMO SOLAS Convention for changeover between main and emergency power supplies.
Immunity to Electrostatic Discharge Test
The immunity to electrostatic discharge testing applies to all equipment categories except submerged. This ESD immunity test simulates the effect of electrostatic discharges from personnel which may occur in environments which cause them to become charged, such as contact with artificial fiber carpets or vinyl garments.
Special Purpose Tests
Acoustic Noise and Signals Test
The acoustic noise and signals testing applies to all equipment intended for installation in wheelhouses and bridge wings. This acoustic test measures the acoustic noise generated by equipment which contributes to background noise level to check that it does not interfere with communication or audible warnings. The test also measures the signal alarm level generated by an equipment.
Compass Safe Distance Test
The Compass safe distance applies to all equipment categories except submerged. This test determines the distances above which an equipment will not cause an unacceptable deviation of the ship’s standard and steering compasses, The actual deviation varies with the strength of the earth’s magnetic field around the world, but is of the order 0,10 for the standard compass, and 0,3° for the steering compass in equatorial regions, rising to 1“ and 3°, respectively, in high latitudes.
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