IEEE STD C95.3 Wireless Compliance Testing
IEEE C95.3 evaluates external electromagnetic fields to a person’s well-being. As a leader in RF regulatory compliance testing, Keystone Compliance recognizes the requirements needed for wireless radio manufacturers. Meeting the ETSI, FCC, and other wireless testing specifications can be challenging. Not only do we understand the challenges, but we help guide companies through the process.
From concept through compliance, Keystone meets all of our customers’ needs under one roof. Our proven process helps avoid product launch delays by inviting our clients to review draft reports before final certification. Regarded as a leader in wireless testing, Keystone Compliance assists companies in RF testing daily. Additionally, we are in constant communication throughout the entire test process.
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Summary of IEEE Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields
IEEE C95.3 helps develop specifications for preferred methods of measuring and computing external radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields to which a person is exposed. IEEE also specifies recommended methods for measurement and computation of resulting fields and currents. These currents are induced in humans exposed to these fields over a frequency range from 100 kHz – 300 GHz.
These measurement techniques and instruments apply to the measurement of fields in the vicinity of flammable materials and explosive devices. This document exclusively addresses human exposure to electromagnetic fields.
IEEE Standard C95.3 includes leakage and near-field measurements. The standard also contains a description of concepts, techniques, and instruments that are applied to the measurement and computation of SAR or the electric field strength in organisms exposed to electromagnetic fields.
In any environment where RF measurements are made, the field strength will most likely vary with position. This is caused by specific interference patterns. These patterns are produced by the combining of energy received directly from the source and reflections from natural or manmade objects.
The distance between the maxima and minima varies from a fraction of a centimeter to multiple meters. At locations with emitters operating at various frequencies, the field strength pattern is particularly complex.
Scope of IEEE Intentional Radiator Testing
This method’s standard techniques and equipment are useful for measurements ranging between 100 kHz to 100 GHz.
IEEE STD C95.3 regulatory testing is intended for three different types of situations:
- Leakage fields
- Radiation fields
- Reactive fields
Leakage fields are generally from unintentional emission of RF energy. Whereas radiation fields result from intentional radiated EM energy. Reactive fields are present in the near vicinity of both leakage and radiation fields. The reactive fields tend to be stronger near radiators of small dimensions concerning wavelength.
Accurate measurements include procedures for estimating or avoiding multipath effects and near-field measurement errors.
IEEE STD C95.3 Testing Parameters
Sources of electromagnetic radiation include widely different characteristics. These characteristics require versatility on the monitoring equipment. Characteristics are as follows:
- Modulation – Specific signals in both the time and frequency domains.
- Radiation Pattern – In the near field, patterns change with distance from the source. On the other hand, in the far-field, no significant change occurs with distance.
- Frequency – Energy is present over several decades of frequency and is predominantly associated with either E- or H-fields.
- Polarization – In the far-field, only one polarization exists over a broad area. In the near field, any polarization may exist at any given point. These will change with small variations in the location from the RF source.
Radiation leakage from electronic equipment presents problems while the source of energy may not be clearly defined. The leakage is known to emanate from a crack in a shielding cabinet. They can also form from poorly joined non-shielded connecting cables or sections. Workers operating in such equipment are subjected to intense exposures due to proximity to the radiating elements.
The reactive near field is the region close to the radiation source. Reactive fields can be inductive or capacitive in nature.
Although the reactive components do not contribute to the net flow of radiated energy, the components can couple into biological or other materials. Thus, they can affect energy absorption. Consequently, the reactive fields must be measured using the appropriate instrumentation and techniques.
Expert IEEE STD C95.3 RF Device Testing
Keystone has a full scope of expertise including licensed exempt radios, licensed radios, and multiple transmitters. Keystone has a full lab of test equipment which permits us to provide short lead times on scheduling. Our team strives to give our customers more time and energy on product development instead of testing.
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